Flow Diagram

The Three Point Advantages of Using Flow Diagram Software

Flow diagram software is being increasingly used in all kinds of business processing environments where processes need to be streamlined and depicted in a sequential or graphical manner to get better output. Flow diagrams are a series of actions that need to be undertaken in order to complete a process. Since businesses are using a lot of processes in order to get their final outputs, there is also a need of several flow diagrams to be used. Manually, it is possible to get flow diagrams done, but it is a very cumbersome process and may not be that efficient also. That is the reason why businesses are saving time and getting a better job done by investing in flow diagram software.

There are three main ways in which flow diagram software can help business processes. These three ways actually cover the entire processing function. Here is a list of the three processes in which flow diagram software can help streamline work.

System Operation

The first and most obvious benefit is that the flow diagram software helps to design a visual representation of the entire way in which the process will go into operation. There can be many alternatives of each factor in a process, but with the help of a flow diagram, it becomes easy to look into the repercussions of these different factors. Most of the things that one can visualize with a flow diagram are quite difficult to express in words or even to explain in written language; but a flow diagram can perform the commendable task of giving a pictorial depiction of the entire process.

System Accomplishment

The flow diagram makes it very clear what the process will accomplish under various conditions. This is of great importance in chemical processing plants, where different conditions can product different products. With the help of a flow diagram, even a lay worker at the chemical plant can be made to understand what the results of the different conditions will be. In general, the flow diagram software can help chalk up a sequential mode of cause and effect to each aspect of the process under consideration.

System Implementation

Finally, the flow diagram can help users to know perfectly well how they should go about applying the system to get the results they expect. That helps to a large extent in maximizing production in businesses and hence, maximizing profits.

In this manner, flow diagram software can help to create a diagram that will enlist the entire processing carried on within the system, give a clear idea of what results one should expect, and to take the proper decisions to get the maximum possible output. Thus, the flow diagram software becomes a very important ally in the workplace environment.

Tree Diagram

Information on Syntax Tree Diagrams

Syntax and tree diagrams- the two seem to belong to different worlds altogether. Interestingly, the fact is that syntax tree diagrams can help you understand the grammatical structure of a sentence in a better and easier way. Syntax is an important part of language and is usually difficult to grasp. Let us find out how can a tree diagram be used to understand the rules of language.

Syntax tree diagrams are very much similar to family tree diagrams, the difference being that these are used to talk about the construction of a language rather than a family. A family tree contains family members whereas a syntax tree diagram contains nodes.

Syntax basically refers to the rules for the arrangement of words into phrases and phrases into sentences. It is a part of the science of linguistics and deals with the sentence structure. This definition leads to the fact that until you understand syntax you cannot make proper use of any language.

A syntax tree diagram has to accomplish a very important task. It usually encodes two types of relations between the various nodes. These are: precedence and dominance. The rules of syntax can be easily understood by assigning an individual tree diagram to each rule. Thus, a sentence can be proved to be grammatically appropriate with the help of structural description. A syntax tree diagram can also be used to understand the different types of sentence structure in a language.

Sometimes you find that a sentence is an ambiguous one and the meaning is not clear. A syntax tree diagram can help you understand these ambiguous sentences too. A syntax tree diagram consists of a number of nodes. Each tree constitutes one root node and often more than one terminal nodes.

If you see a syntax tree diagram, you will find that the root node is easily distinguishable from the terminal nodes. The other nodes present in such tree diagrams are referred to as intermediate nodes. All these nodes in a tree diagram are connected to each other, either directly or indirectly, with branches.

If you want to take help of these syntax tree diagrams to understand the concepts of sentence formation in a better way, you can do the following. You can take help of a number of software available to make such tree diagrams. The Internet can be a great source for finding such software. The Internet can also provide you with a number of samples of syntax tree diagrams. This way you can easily decide the format for your tree diagram to get the most out of it.

So, go ahead and make dig into your Internet search engine to find appropriate software. This will help you make syntax tree diagrams and your problems related to syntax will be solved.

Electronic Schematics Diagram

Electronic Schematics Diagram – The Four Commonly Asked Questions

I came across quite a number of questions about electronic circuit schematics diagram.

Most of the question asked are:

a) Do we really need a schematic diagram in order to repair any electronic equipment?

b) Will schematic diagram help us to repair faster?

c) At where we can get a particular schematic diagram?

d) How to read schematic diagram?

Well, the answers is as below:

a)-Theoretically yes, practically not necessary, it all depends on how good you are in electronic repair knowledge. For a beginner it is a ‘must’ for you to understand about schematic diagram, as you gradually gained more knowledge you will automatically depends less on schematic diagram. You will definitely need a schematic diagram when you come across a new designed or technology. For example, when comes to crt monitor repair i seldom see schematic because i already understood most of the circuitry and section in a crt monitor. The new technology such as lcd or tft monitor makes me have to temporarily relies on schematic diagram. As my knowledge of lcd monitor repair grows, i will gradually depends less on the schematics. May be my situation is different from yours because I’m concentrating only on one type of equipment. I’ve seen quite a lot of repairers in my country that repair many types of equipment such as tv, video, vcd, dvd, amplifier, hi-fi, fax, laser printer, microwave and so forth. Most probably they need schematic diagram to keep them up to date on each of the equipment technology.

b) If you have a particular schematic diagram for that particular equipment, your troubleshooting time can be reduced to half! Unfortunately many manufacturer do not release their equipment’s schematic diagram. If you depends on too much of schematic you will be stuck on how to repair that particular equipment. Why with schematic diagram you can repair any equipment faster? Because a schematic diagram shown you all the part list, waveform, voltages, explanation how that particular equipment work, block diagram, schematic design, component’s part number, electrical schematics symbols, substitution, modification (if have) and electronic schematic symbols and etc. Assuming you have a power supply section blown and you could not recognize the component part number, but with schematic you will be able to find the exact part number and finally repaired the equipment.

c) If you work in the equipment’s factory or their distributor you will have the schematic diagram for the model that they sell. Any under warranty unit that comes in you will be able to diagnose and repair the equipment fast. This will increase the company’s reputation and customers will recommend to their friends about the quick service of that particular brand of equipment. You also can get schematic diagram in the form of a book from local electronic shops. This is usually a compilation of few brands and model of a specific electronic equipment. Tv or television schematics diagram are easily to get but computer monitor schematics and radio amplifier schematics is a little bit harder to find. If you have the budget get one of the book. Third, as most of us already know that you can download free electronic schematics diagram from the internet. Free tv schematics is easily found on the internet. You may also buy it the ‘CD’ format. This investment will usually pay back in the shortest time.

d) As how to read schematic diagram, I’m unable to show you through article because you do need a real schematic diagram in order to make you understand. Reading schematic is not that difficult, provided you have some basic electronic knowledge. I have a few suggestions:

-Ask from a friend who is in the repair line

-Take short courses on electronic repair and ask the lecturer

-Buy books from your local bookstore about the subject “how to read schematic diagram”

-Buy schematic diagram and learn on your own (this will take sometimes but worth it)

-Fix some project kit using the electronic kit schematics given. This will add to your knowledge also.

Conclusion-In order to become a successful electronic repairer you must understand how to read schematic diagram.

Fishbone Diagram

Ishikawa Fishbone Diagram

The cause-and-effect diagram, also called a “Fish bone diagram”, because of its appearance that resembles to fish skeleton, allows the listing of factors that may affect a problem or desired outcome of some activity. The head of the fish bone diagram is the problem that is under the scope of analysis. The bones of diagram represent causes of the problem. Every cause within diagram can be further developed by its own causes.

It is an effective tool for analyzing processes and situations and for planning.

The “Fish bone Diagram” is graphical display of a list that explains the relationship between some “effect” and all the possible “causes” that are influencing it. The effect or problem is stated on the one side of the fish bone diagram, and the major causes are listed to the other side.

For example, the effect can be the proper functioning of the lamp. The causes of proper or improper functioning of the lamp can be the battery, circuit, switch or fuse.

The Fish bone Diagram, which is also called Ishikawa Diagram, is the performance management tool for root cause analysis. The measurement is focused on inspection of the progress of every individual key performance indicator versus predefined target. It is necessary to understand causes for under performance for every under performing KPI in order to undertake corrective measures. The fish bone diagram is the tool that can give structured approach to the root cause of the problem.

For every under performing KPI there are one or more causes. The Fish bone Diagram can be used for identification of causes of certain event. It can be used for analysis of any event Fish bone diagram is the tool for understanding all causes of events.

The inventor of the Fish bone Diagram is professor Kaoru Ishikawa, who created it in 1960s. His intention was to continuously improve quality standards. The diagram plays important role toward this goal. Ishikawa’s idea was that results of every business process can always be performed in more quality way, from one cycle to another. Ishikawa used this Diagram as a tool of process improvement.

The Fish bone Diagram should be always used as an analytical tool for those KPIs that are below target. The diagram must be prepared for identification of possible causes of under performance.

During the Fish bone Diagram analysis, the causes are grouped as:

– External ( economy, weather, legislation ) These factors should be listed for information purposes, but they are usually not the subject of thorough analysis, since it is hard or impossible to influence them.

– Internal ( productivity, discipline, high costs,… ) are causes that subject can influence. Branching down of every “bone” of the diagram can give more detailed analysis.

Based on fish bone diagram analysis, the owner of the key performance indicators needs to prepare corrective action plan with a purpose of improving the result of process back on track. The action plan is focused on defining 4 key directions that are defined by simple questions:

Who is the owner of the KPI that is responsible for conducting the action plan?

What is action plan and activities that will lead to achieving target?

When is the deadline for the activities?

How it will be done (Resources required for action plan)?

Owner of the Key Performance Indicator has to prepare corrective action plan in situation of under performance of specific KPI. The fish bone diagram is the practical tool for route causes analysis during daily management routine.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6612353

Spine Diagram

Types of Spine Diagram

pine diagram is used by surgeons and orthopedic doctors to explain to their patient problems that need to be addressed. Visually showing them diagrams makes it easy for them to understand what the concern is. In this respect, these diagrams are vital visual aids. These diagrams are also used by medical schools to help students understand the anatomy of human body.

As you analyze such as diagram, you will find that everything there including the vertebral column is described in highly technical terms. Only a medical expert specializing in this field will therefore be able to identify problem areas and provide you with treatment options. Patients who suffer from spine related problems also consult chiropractors who again are adept at using these diagrams.

Cervical spine diagram includes the cervical vertebra, intervertebral disc, skull, atlas and axis. Apart from medical books at libraries or bookstore, you can find these diagrams online too. Related websites also provide in-depth explanations for the complicated technical terms.

These diagrams help with proper diagnosis and treatment for patients. These diagrams are also used by practitioners to explain and educate patients on proper care of their spinal cord.

For example, with the help of cervical diagrams, it is possible to explain the importance of proper posture to patients. Today there are advanced tools that aid in speedier and precise imaging of the spinal cord. Medical institutions and private practitioners benefit from these diagrams to a great extent as they make it very easy for them to explain and make patients understand specific spine related problems.

There are different types of diagrams including –

Cervical spine diagram – This diagram shows us how the spine is connected to the skull and brain. It also offers a clear view of the cervical spine from different angles. This diagram is used by both medical analysts and students. A detailed diagram shows the main parts of the vertebral column including the invertebral discs, the sacrum, the coccyx and 24 vertebrae apart from the spinal cord that runs through the spine canal separated by discs.

Lumbar spine diagram – Also referred to as the prolapsed disc diagram, lumbar spine diagrams show the complicated softer tissues apart from the bone structure.

Today, you can find software that illustrates diagrams of the spine with attractive animations and graphics. Spine diagram software is gaining in popularity as a powerful visual aid that helps with a deeper understanding of the spinal structure.

Diagram Software

Printable Tree Diagram Software Tools

Before we go into printable tree diagram, let us first have a brief look at what a tree diagram is. Tree diagrams are basically graphics, which represent a structure like a tree, with the components in the diagram having logical relation between them. The tree trunk of the diagram is the main topic of the application, and the facts, factors, influences, traits, people, or outcomes of the topic are represented by the branches. In sorting items or needing to classify them, you would use the benefits of tree diagrams. The typical tree diagram is a like a family tree diagram. The others are, for example, cladistic trees used in biological classification, and dichotomous keys, used to determine what group a specimen belongs to in biology.

These tree diagrams use terminologies which are a mixture of names from the botanical and genealogical terms. Printable tree diagrams are those graphic documents, which have been derived from analysis of problem situations in business operations. Such diagrams can also be produced when you sort items or classify them. Tree diagram appears to be just like a tree, with branches branching out in every direction, looking very much like the family trees that we know of.

Statistical tree diagrams are also printable tree diagrams, and are shaped in the form of a tree, where the dataset is derived from a Cluster, in which the Hierarchical clustering is produced by the Clusters in shape of a tree. When you use tree diagram, the diagram tree has its roots at the top, with the clusters as branches, the heights of which are determined by the numerical value in the output dataset.

A probability tree diagram is used mostly used in mathematical environment, the documents of which can also be printed out as in printable tree diagrams. This tree diagram is used for determining definite results on probabilities on specific probability nested matters. Tree diagram also has a role in physics. A classical tree diagram would depict results obtained from physics problems in which the effects of quantum mechanics are ignored. To create a tree diagram one would not need to perform any integrals to calculate the diagram parameters. Tree diagram has also been used linguistic applications, where it has been used to visually represent the structure of a sentence, a syllable, or phonological feature geometry. Tree diagrams are also used in situations, where you need to judge the validity of critical data. The diagram is also utilised to examine the relevance of the various expression profiles found in Clusters.

Printable tree diagram is a tool, with which it is possible to create great looking diagrams of the types, tree diagrams, fishbone diagrams, charts, maps, illustrations and more. You will find practically all your applications meeting the features presented in tree diagrams. It is suggested that when you buy a package of the software, you should first have a look at the features that you want. Tree diagrams are expensive and you would not want to buy a package with features that you do not need.

Diagram Software

The Evolution of Diagram Software

Information presented as a diagram, a chart or an image is much more easier to understand then a text document filled with hundreds of words. This is exactly the reason more and more companies are using diagrams in their presentations and company documents. Because diagrams help you present complex information in an easy to understand way, many industries started using diagrams and came up with unique diagrams catered towards their business. As the process of drawing diagrams became more complex, advanced software was created for drawing diagrams.

Although there was software created for this, this was mainly used by few expert users in one specific company or used by skilled professionals like software engineers and university professors. One reason for this is that very few users had the proper knowledge to draw these diagrams and not many resources were available for others to learn how to draw these diagrams. Another reason for the low number of users is the high cost associated with these software. Microsoft Visio is one of the most comprehensive diagramming tools in the market, but it’s not practical for a user to buy a single user license if he’s only looking to draw one or two diagrams.

The price of these software were high because they supported almost every possible diagram type. The software vendor had to support and maintain all the diagram types, even though a single user will at most use five or six diagram types. Also there was not a big demand for a single set of diagram types, the only exception being diagrams related to software engineering. So it wasn’t practical for software vendors to come up with different products for different diagram types.

The popularity and the growth of the Internet is one major factor that helped shape diagram software. Because resources on how to draw these diagrams were available online, more and more people became aware of the technical details required to draw these diagrams. Once the communication became easier it was much easier to agree on standards and common ways to draw certain diagrams. As the price of hardware came down so did the price of software, making it accessible to a wider audience. All those factors contributed to the growth, but problems like different file formats used by different software vendors, poor language support etc prevented drawing diagrams becoming something truly global.

The next step in these software were online diagramming software. These Internet applications made drawing software accessible to anyone with an Internet connection. This was a major breakthrough because earlier if you started drawing a diagram at office or university and wanted to finish it at home, you need to have the software in both places and you need to transfer the files from one location to another. Another significant factor was software vendors agreeing on a common format. Now users had the ability to modify a diagram drawn using some other diagram software using their own preferred software.

Now the software vendors are moving towards collaborative online diagrams software. The collaboration has become necessary because most teams are now in distributed locations and it takes time to get something done using email, document sharing etc. But if you can share your diagram with your peers while drawing it, then you can get instant feedback and draw a better diagram.

It’s hard to predict what the future will hold, but as the infrastructure and the technology used to create these software grow we are sure to see some innovative diagram software in the future.

Nishadha Silva is an Internet Marketing Specialist at Cinergix, creators of award winning software Creately. Creately is used by thousands of people to draw diagrams online. Other than providing tools to draw diagrams there are many resources and templates available for free. Check out the Flowchart template section to get an idea of the resources available to you.

UML Diagram

UML Diagrams As A Tool For A Software Development Team

As we progress into the 21st century, our reliance on computer and information systems to facilitate business is greater than ever before. The global market is much too convoluted and relentless to be run on manpower and note-taking alone; software systems are crucial to a company when handling large amounts of data processing, customer transactions, or client databases. As such, their development and maintenance has become a key component in successful company operations.

To structure, plan, and control the development of these systems, a software development life cycle (SDLC) is developed and adhered to. Different methodologies have evolved to be applied for different purposes, based on technical, organizational, project and team needs, but generally all will use some combination of the following stages:

• Problem analyzing
• Market research
• Requirements analysis
• Design
• Implementation (coding)
• Testing
• Deployment
• Maintenance and bug fixing

How strictly this order is followed, and what level of planning and documentation is reached, will depend on the requirements of the business and capabilities of the software. A ‘waterfall’ approach to the SDLC would see each of these stages carried out in linear order, with detailed planning and risk assessment before coding is even begun. The ‘agile’ approach involves a lot less planning and documentation, and focuses more on coding and continuous re-testing, ideal for a smaller system, or one where new components are being added as an ongoing process.

Modeling software development using UML diagrams

While going through each stage of the SLDC, it can be useful, and necessary, to produce a visual model of that process. A diagram of this kind presents a graphical view of a software system’s structure, components and relationships, which allows the designer to organize and predict certain outcomes, as well as share system information with collaborators and clients.

The accepted standard used when modeling a system is known as Unified Modeling Language (UML), a generic set of notations that are used when creating UML diagrams. These notations can visually represent requirements, subsystems, logical and physical elements, and structural and behavioral patterns, that are especially relevant to systems built using an object-oriented style.

Using UML during the modeling process has a number of benefits – for one, the entire development team can share information and collaborate using common language, diagrams and software, something that’s not possible when using a more task-specific programming language. It allows team members to create system ‘blueprints’, creating diagrams that show system as a unified whole, but also allowing the option to break that system down into component parts or processes.

Currently on version 2.5, UML supports 14 different diagram techniques that are seen as industry standard. These diagrams are broadly divided into two categories; first are static structure diagrams, that describe the physical structure of a system. Then there are behavior diagrams, that depict behaviors and interactions of various system components. Here is a brief description what each diagram is and how it can be applied:

Static structure diagrams

Class diagrams – divides objects into ‘classes’, i.e. parts that share common attributes. Class defines the methods and variables of that object, and diagrams depict relationships and source code dependencies between them.

Component diagrams – displays system components (physical or logical), interfaces and ports, and the connections between them. Allows analysts to replace and system check individual parts rather than designing the process from scratch.

Composite structure diagrams – shows the internal structure of a specific class, the role each element plays in collaboration with others, and how this affects how the class interacts with outside elements.

Deployment diagrams – models the physical deployment of artefacts (software systems) on nodes (normally hardware, e.g. laptop, mobile phone). Execution environment nodes are a ‘node within a node’, a software computing resource that displays hardware characteristics.

Object diagrams – represent a system overview. Similar to a class diagram, the take a snap-show of a system structure at a particular moment in time.

Package diagrams – packages are formed when UML elements are grouped together – classes, objects, use cases, components or nodes. A package diagram shows this grouping, and dependencies between packages that make up a system. An example of use would be when modeling complex source code; packages are used to represent the different layers of code.

Profile diagrams – operates at the metamodel level to show stereotypes as classes, and profiles as packages. Allows the developer to create custom packages.

Behavior diagrams

Activity diagrams – can be said to resemble a flowchart, showing steps in a software process as a workflow. Binary choices from each step, yes/no, true/false, make this a useful medium to describe software and coding logic.

State machine diagrams – describes the current state of a machine, which values are acting upon it. It shows what actions the nodes of a software system take, dependent on explicit events.

Use case diagrams – shows an actual example of system usage. Helps define requirements for a software system, and can describes any possible form of interactions between users and that system.

Interaction diagrams

Communication diagrams – displays the interaction between objects in terms of a set of sequenced messages. It’s used to create a birds-eye view of the collaboration between several objects, for a common purpose within the system.

Interaction overview diagrams – like an activity diagram in that it shows a workflow through a system, but simplifies complex patterns by making each step a nest of interactions within the larger overview of an activity.

Sequence diagram – useful to describe object interactions in a specific time sequence. Can consist of parallel ‘life lines’ that depict an objects state at any given moment, and the sequence of time ordered events that affect that state. From a software perspective, developers use this diagram can show simple run-time scenarios.

Timing diagram – depicts the behaviors of a given set of objects through a certain period of time.

Modeling Tools

ConceptDraw is dedicated to providing system designers and specialists with the optimum tools required to create diagrams in a coherent and efficient manner, maximizing possible output to keep up with the designer’s speed of thought. The Rapid UML solution was created with this aim in mind.

The Rapid UML solution consists of numerous vector stencil libraries, containing the generic icons of the Unified Modeling Language. All graphics are professionally designed to adhere to industry standards, meaning UML diagrams will be understood universally, and applicable for design purposes, presentations, or communicating ideas and defining requirements with other collaborators or end-users.

SysML Diagram

Systems Modeling Language (SysML) Diagrams

Originating as sub-dialect of Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML) is to system engineers what UML is to software engineers. Smaller in content and simpler to learn than UML, the current version of SysML, 1.3, uses one of nine different diagram types to represent system models and interactions. Unlike UML, which focuses on standardizing the language used to describe software systems, SysML covers a broader range of systems, than can involve personnel, facilities, hardware or electrical components. What SysML does share in common with its parent language is 7 of the 9 diagram forms, and the division of these diagrams into behavioral and structural types.

SysML Behavioral Diagrams

A behavioral diagram emphasizes the steps that must happen in the system being modeled. They show step-by-step the interaction and options available to the various components and actors of a process. There are four SysML diagrams that describe the behavioral aspects of systems:

Activity Diagrams

Activity diagrams break a workflow down into all possible steps, and show a flow of control or data. They are comprised of block shapes and connector lines elements that have inherent rules governing behavior and actions. System engineers can use them to specify process function independent of structure, without the use of partitions or ‘swimlanes’.

Use Case Diagrams

Participants in a system can have their involvement described as a series of use cases – a use case diagram presents those scenarios in their simplest form. Diagrams can be modified to show different levels of user interaction on the same system.

Sequence Diagrams

A sequence diagram shows messages passed between processes and systems, and the order in which they given. Objects are shown consecutively with ‘lifelines’, parallel descending vertical arrows that are intersected with horizontal lines carrying messages and actions performed in sequential time order.

State Machine Diagrams

System engineers use a state machine diagram to describe the state transitions of a system, and what actions it performs in response to events. Possibilities for system behavior depend upon which state it’s in. This diagram uses notation to illustrate initial, final, and current states, with arrows being used to denote a transition.

SysML Structural Diagrams

Structural diagrams exhibit the components that must be present for a system or process to work. They allow objects and components to be put into classes and hierarchies, with the option to add annotation that details attributes, operations and relationships within systems. The four structural SysML diagrams contain 3 diagrams similar to their UML counterparts, with parametric diagrams as the lone original form:

Package Diagrams

Package diagrams group all related objects or participants within a thematic package, and examine the dependencies between them. Packages can be arranged in layers or tiers, where layers represent the logical division of components into a hierarchical class structure, while tiers denote the physical grouping of objects through their geographical location.

Block Definition and Internal Block Definition Diagrams

These two diagram styles act as a compliment to each other, showing a system from a comparable level of detail, but from different perspectives. They both show the static structure of a system as a series of blocks connected via interfaces. Block definition diagrams show components only in terms of their input and output functions, disregarding the internal mechanisms that they resulted from. They also show how information and physical flows are supported using standard ports, flow ports and flow specifications.
An internal block definition diagram takes a view of one of these individual blocks, and describes the parts that make up its internal structure; how these parts are connected to external interfaces and each other.

Parametric Diagrams

A typical parametric diagram can be compared to a restricted form of internal block definition diagram. It shows the constraints of a particular block – these can be limitations on a certain performance aspect of a process – and what impact this has on their interactions with other blocks. They offer a chance to identify and articulate all possible constraints and rules of a system, which make them an invaluable tool for systems engineering trade studies.

Requirements Diagrams

Requirements diagrams somewhat eschew the two established categories, combining both structural and behavioral elements into the information presented. They list the requirements of each model element, and give definitions to the relationships arising from various states or the lifecycle timescale of the system.

SysML Throughout Industry

Using diagramming as a technique to map system processes and describe functions allows you to compare and contrast current state and possible future scenarios. Using SysML as a unified source of notation facilitates communication between other system engineers and stakeholders, creating diagrams that can be understood universally in intent and design. In terms of its application throughout industry, while UML is used almost solely to explain software system architecture, SysML can be applied across all forms of business in all its variations. Taking the automotive industry as an example, SysML diagrams can describe engine or electrical components inside the car, a sales transaction, or the procurement of spare parts and resources. It’s this versatility that is so invaluable when communicating system design.

CS Odessa have long recognized the need for a comprehensive collection of modeling language notation. Through Solution Park, graphics libraries, samples and template have already been released for a number of UML solutions, giving software engineers a powerful set of tools for their system modeling requirements. The ConceptDraw Systems Modeling Language Diagrams solution is set to enhance those capabilities even further, with 13 libraries consisting off all icons and graphic notations associated with the 9 diagram techniques. A benefit to system engineers for putting their work through ConceptDraw PRO are the powerful design features that come into their own when process modeling – such as the intelligent connectors that manage their form dependent on your manipulation of drawing elements.

UML Diagram

UML Modelling: Activity Diagram

UML is a Unified modeling language. This UML language consists of several different types of diagrams. In this article we are discussing about activity diagram.


In its fundamental form, an activity diagram is a straightforward and intuitive explanation of what happens in a work flow, what actions can be done in parallel, and whether there are alternative paths through the work flow. These diagrams as defined in the Unified Modeling Language [UML1.3] are derived from a variety of techniques to visually illustrate work flows. Much of the basis for the definition of the these diagram information is found in [Martin & Odell].

We can use activity diagrams to visualize the work flow of a business use case. An absolute work flow explanation will have a basic flow, and one or several alternative flows. This work flow has a structure that we can describe textually, using informal if, if-then-else, or a do-until statements of different types. For a simple work flow with a simple structure such textual definitions may be moderately adequate, but in the

case of more composite structures, these diagrams assist to illuminate and create more noticeable what the work flow is. Historically, these diagramming techniques have typically been used in the business process modeling domain, but you can use it in the system modeling domain too.


In June 2003, The Rational Edge introduced a new article series by Donald Bell, IBM Global Services, called UML basics. The reason of this series is to help readers become familiar with the major diagrams that create much of the UML. Part I offered a general overview of these diagrams; this month, we continue the series with a close look at the this diagram, counting this diagram’s complete UML v1.4 notation set.

The activity diagram’s purpose

The purpose of the this diagram is to represent the technical flow of events that are part of a larger activity. In projects in which use cases are present, these diagrams can model a precise use case at a more comprehensive level. However, these diagrams can be used independently of use cases for modeling a business-level function, such as buying a concert ticket or registering for a college class. Activity diagrams can also be used to model system-level functions, such as how a ticket reservation data mart populates a corporate sales system’s data warehouse. Since it models procedural flow, the activity diagram focuses on the action series of execution and the situations that activate or guard those actions. This diagram is also focused only on the activity’s interior actions and not on the actions that call the activity in their process flow or that trigger the activity according to some event.

Although UML sequence diagrams can depict the same information as activity diagrams, I personally find these diagrams excellent for modeling business-level functions. This is because these diagrams demonstrate all possible sequence flows in an activity, whereas a sequence diagram typically illustrates only one flow of an activity. In addition, business managers and business process workforce seem to favor these diagrams more than sequence diagrams — an activity diagram is less “techie” in appearance, and therefore less threatening to business people. Moreover, business managers are used to seeing flow diagrams, so the “look” of an activity diagram is familiar.

When to Use: Activity Diagrams

These diagrams should be used in combination with other modeling techniques such as interaction diagrams and state diagrams. The key motivation to utilize these diagrams is to model the work flow behind the system being planned.

Activity Diagrams are also useful for:

  1. Analyzing a use case by describing what actions require occurring and when they should arise.
  2. Describing a complicated sequential algorithm.
  3. Modeling applications with parallel processes.

However, activity diagrams should not take the position of interaction diagrams and state diagrams. these diagrams do not give detail about how objects behave or how objects collaborate.


Activity diagrams are graphical demonstrations of work flows of step wise activities and actions with maintain for option, iteration and concurrency. In the Unified Modeling Language, these diagrams can be used to portray the business and operational step-by-step work flows of mechanisms in a system. In this diagram it illustrates the in general flow of control.

Activity diagrams express the work flow performance of a system. These diagrams are parallel to state diagrams because activities are the state of doing something. The diagrams describe the state of activities by presenting the sequence of activities executed. These diagrams can confirm activities that are conditional or parallel.


Activity diagrams are constructed from a restricted number of shapes, linked with arrows. The most significant shape types:

  • Rounded Rectangles correspond to Activities;
  • Diamonds symbolize Decisions;
  • Bars represent the start (split) or end (join) of concurrent activities;
  • Black circle stands for the start (initial state) of the work flow;
  • Encircled black circle signifies the end (final state).
  • Arrows run from the start towards the end and represent the order in which activities happen.

Therefore, all these shapes can be considered as a form of flowchart. Usual flowchart methods are short of constructs for expressing concurrency. However, the join and split symbols in this diagrams only determine this for easy cases. The sense of the representation is not understandable when they are randomly combined with decisions or iterations.

Description, meaning, and sequence of the basic notations:

  • Initial node: The filled in circle is the starting point of the diagram. An initial node isn’t necessary although it does make it drastically easier to read the diagram.
  • Activity final node: The filled circle with a border is the ending point. An activity diagram can have zero or more activity final nodes.
  • Activity: The rounded rectangles represent activities that occur. An activity may be physical, such as Inspect Forms, or electronic, such as Display Create Student Screen.
  • Flow/edge or arrows on the diagram: Although there is a subtle difference between flows and edges I have never seen a practical purpose for the difference although I have no doubt one exists. I’ll use the term flow.
  • Fork: There is a black bar with one flow going into it and several leaving it. This denotes the beginning of parallel activity.
  • Join: There is a black bar with several flows entering it and one leaving it. All flows going into the join must reach it before processing may continue. This denotes the end of parallel processing.
  • Condition: In the diagram, there is a text such as [Incorrect Form] on a flow, defining a guard which must evaluate to true in order to traverse the node.
  • Decision: There is a diamond with one flow entering and several leaving. The flows leaving include conditions although some modelers will not indicate the conditions if it is obvious.
  • Merge: There is a diamond shape with several flows entering and one leaving. The implication is that one or more incoming flows must reach this point until processing continues, based on any guards on the outgoing flow.
  • Partition: This is organized into three partitions, also called swimlanes, indicating who/what is performing the activities (Applicant, Registrar, or System).
  • Sub-activity indicator: The rake in the bottom corner of an activity, such as in the Apply to University activity, indicates that the activity is described by a more finely detailed activity diagram.
  • Flow final: If there is the circle with the X through it called flow final. This indicates that the process stops at this point.